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  1. Hadley cell placement is strongly evident on the Ensemble mean, the smoothing makes it easier to see averaged between the individual members. If nothing less, this year has been fascinating on the climate front.
  2. Jeezus....
  3. Civilization is fancilful.
  4. Events like this really confuse the public, even more shockingly I think DCA will still come in slightly ABN for November. No staying power, and really no basis in holocene reality yet connected to the downstream effects of extreme blocking. Prolific hysteresis behavior.
  5. They seem to have a natural immunity, not related to SST's but more or less upper level features. This could change in the future but the hadley cells have only moved 90-150 miles north since 1980 with most of that occuring since 2005.
  6. http://www.pnas.org/content/110/45/18087.full Significance We show observational evidence for a stratospheric water vapor feedback—a warmer climate increases stratospheric water vapor, and because stratospheric water vapor is itself a greenhouse gas, this leads to further warming. An estimate of its magnitude from a climate model yields a value of +0.3 W/(m2⋅K), suggesting that this feedback plays an important role in our climate system. Next Section Abstract We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry–climate model to be +0.3 W/(m2⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. climate change lowermost stratosphere overworld Doubling carbon dioxide in our atmosphere by itself leads to a global average warming of ∼1.2 °C. However, this direct warming from carbon dioxide drives other changes, known as feedbacks, that increase the eventual warming to 2.0–4.5 °C. Thus, much of the warming predicted for the next century comes not from direct warming by carbon dioxide but from feedbacks. The strongest climate feedback is the tropospheric water vapor feedback (1, 2). The troposphere is the bottom 10–15 km of the atmosphere, and there are physical reasons to expect it to become moister as the surface warms (3)—and, indeed, both observations (4⇓–6) and climate models (7, 8) verify this. Because water vapor is itself a greenhouse gas, tropospheric moistening more than doubles the direct warming from carbon dioxide. Stratospheric water vapor is also a greenhouse gas (9) whose interannual variations may have had important climatic consequences (10). This opens the possibility of a stratospheric water vapor feedback (11, 12) whereby a warming climate increases stratospheric water vapor, leading to additional warming. In this paper, we investigate this possibility. Previous SectionNext Section Analysis Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of the Overworld. Stratospheric water vapor can best be understood by subdividing the stratosphere into two regions: the overworld, that part of the stratosphere above the altitude of the tropical tropopause (∼16 km), and the lowermost stratosphere, that part of the extratropical stratosphere below that altitude (13) (see also figure 1 of ref. 14). Air enters the overworld exclusively through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), where cold temperatures regulate the humidity of the air (14, 15) (we hereafter refer to the water content of air entering the overworld as H2Oov-entry). Variations in H2Oov-entry can therefore be traced to variations in TTL temperatures. Fig. 1 shows monthly average tropical 82-hPa (∼18-km altitude) water-vapor volume-mixing–ratio anomalies observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) (16) (all tropical averages in this paper are over 30°N–30°S; anomalies are the remainder after the average annual cycle has been subtracted). These data are a good approximation of H2Oov-entry because this air has just entered the overworld and production of water from methane oxidation is negligible. In a new window Download PPT Fig. 1. Time series of water vapor anomalies at 82 hPa (∼18 km), averaged over the latitudes 30°N–30°S. Data are from measurements made by the MLS (solid line). Dashed and dotted lines are reconstructions from multivariate regressions to the MLS data using different reanalysis estimates of BD and ΔT indices. To better understand the observed variations in Fig. 1, we performed a multivariate linear regression on the data with the following regression model:QBO is a quasibiennial oscillation index, for which we use the standardized anomaly of monthly and zonally averaged equatorial 50-hPa winds (17); BD is a Brewer–Dobson circulation index, for which we use the 82-hPa tropical heating rate anomaly as a surrogate; ΔT is the tropical average 500-hPa temperature anomaly, which is an index for the temperature of the tropical troposphere; and r is the residual. Values for the ΔT and BD indices are obtained from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) (18) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERAi) (19). See Methods for details about the regression. Fig. 1 shows that the fits do an excellent job reproducing the MLS measurements (adjusted R2 = 68% and 70% for the MERRA and ERAi fits, respectively). Table 1 lists the coefficients from regressions of the MLS data. Of particular note, the positive coefficient for the ΔT index supports a positive stratospheric water vapor feedback: an increase in tropospheric temperatures leads to higher H2Oov-entry, and because water vapor is a greenhouse gas, this leads to further warming of the troposphere. In this window In a new window Table 1. Coefficients from regressions of the H2Oov-entry time series Climate Model Simulation of the Overworld. We have also analyzed H2Oov-entry in version 2 of the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) (20). Here we look at a 21st century simulation driven by sea surface temperatures and other forcings from an A1B run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model 3.0 (21). Fig. 2 shows annual-average 85-hPa tropical H2O from the GEOSCCM (hereafter GEOSCCM H2Oov-entry) increases over the 21st century. To understand the factors underlying the GEOSCCM trend, we regress the GEOSCCM H2Oov-entry time series using the same regression model used to analyze the MLS data (Eq. 1). The BD and ΔT time series come from the GEOSCCM; the model does not have a QBO in it, so that process is excluded from the regression. In a new window Download PPT Fig. 2. Time series of annual-average H2Oov-entry anomalies from the GEOSCCM (black) and the reconstruction from a multivariate least-squares regression (gray) over the 21st century. The dashed and dotted lines are the BD and ΔT terms of the regression, respectively. Fig. 2 shows that the regression accurately reconstructs GEOSCCM H2Oov-entry. The individual components of the regression are also plotted and they show that the increasing H2Oov-entry over the 21st century is driven by warming of the troposphere (the ΔT term), which is partially offset by cooling of the TTL from an increase in the strength of the BD circulation (22, 23). The coefficients of the GEOSCCM regression are also listed in Table 1. The climate variations in the MLS data are dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), whereas climate variation in the GEOSCCM is predominantly long-term warming. Because of this, we also perform regressions on GEOSCCM data filtered to remove variations with timescales >10 y, thereby emphasizing the short-term variations. These coefficients are also listed in Table 1 and, in general, this regression also produces results similar to the MLS regressions. Lowermost Stratosphere. Air in the lowermost stratosphere (hereafter, LMS) is a mixture of air that descended from the overworld, which went through the TTL, and air that crossed the extratropical tropopause, which is warmer than the tropical tropopause and therefore carries higher H2O mixing ratios into the stratosphere (14). The factors that control LMS H2O are not as well understood as for the overworld. We therefore apply the simplest test by regressing LMS H2O anomalies against extratropical tropospheric temperatures anomalies. Fig. 3 shows a scatterplot of these quantities from the northern hemisphere. Overall, the GEOSCCM regressions yield slopes of 2.9 ± 0.1 and 1.9 ± 0.1 ppm/K in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Regressions using time series filtered to remove variations with timescales >10 y produce slopes of 2.3 ± 0.6 and 1.7 ± 0.5 ppm/K. In a new window Download PPT Fig. 3. Scatter plots of (Upper) GEOSCCM annual-average lowermost stratospheric H2O (200-hPa mixing ratio, averaged between 50°N and 90°N) vs. extratropical tropospheric temperature (500-hPa temperature, averaged between 30°N and 90°N) and (Lower) the corresponding scatterplot of MLS monthly average H2O vs. MERRA temperatures. For these plots, the GEOSCCM data have been filtered to remove long-term (>10 y) variations. The solid line is the least-squares fit, and the dashed lines are the 95% confidence interval. Using MLS H2O data and MERRA temperatures, the regression slopes are 1.1 ± 0.7 and 0.7 ± 0.5 ppm/K for the two hemispheres (results using ERAi temperatures are similar). Note that MLS H2O mixing ratios in this region of the atmosphere are about half of the GEOSCCM’s (∼10 ppm vs. 20 ppm), so the regressions produce similar fractional changes in H2O per unit of surface warming. Both the MLS and GEOSCCM data indicate that LMS H2O increases with increasing tropospheric temperatures, consistent with a positive LMS water vapor feedback. However, the details of the regression (e.g., latitude range to average over), although reasonable, are ultimately ad hoc because we do not have a good understanding of the processes that regulate LMS H2O. More work is needed to strengthen our understanding of this issue. Quantifying the Feedback. Fig. 4 plots the change in zonal average stratospheric H2O in the GEOSCCM over the 21st century (hereafter, ΔH2O). The contribution from CH4 oxidation has been removed by assuming that each CH4 molecule destroyed produces two H2O molecules (24, 25). There is little variability in overworld ΔH2O because stratospheric transport homogenizes the stratosphere much faster (∼5 y) than H2Oov-entry is changing over the 21st century. As a result, overworld ΔH2O is everywhere approximately equal to the change in H2Oov-entry over the 21st century. In a new window Download PPT Fig. 4. Change in zonal average stratospheric H2O in ppm over the 21st century from the GEOSCCM; the contribution from methane oxidation has been subtracted. Note that the color scale is nonlinear; white areas indicate the troposphere. The dashed and solid lines are the 0.6 and 0.8 ppm contours, respectively. An exception is the near-zero value over the South Pole at ∼22 km. This reflects the fact that the Antarctic stratosphere is near saturation during winter. Stratospheric cooling over the 21st century therefore increases condensation and irreversible loss of H2O there, which on average cancels increasing H2Oov-entry. The rest of the stratosphere is so far above the frost point that it never saturates, so stratospheric cooling has no effect on H2O. Radiative transfer calculations are used to quantify the change in global average radiative flux at the tropopause due to the ΔH2O field in Fig. 4. This calculation includes an adjustment to stratospheric temperatures using a fixed dynamical heating assumption (26). The calculated change in downward flux at the tropopause is +0.59 W/m2. Dividing the change in flux by the change in global average surface temperature (2.0 K) yields a stratospheric water vapor feedback with a magnitude of +0.29 W/(m2⋅K). Most of this feedback, however, comes from ΔH2O in the LMS because the largest values of ΔH2O are there and because the radiative impact of ΔH2O maximizes just above the tropopause (10). To isolate the impact of changes in overworld ΔH2O, we replace ΔH2O in the LMS with 0.7 ppm, a value typical of the overworld. We then recalculate the change in downward flux at the tropopause to be +0.19 W/m2, which in turn yields a feedback factor of +0.10 W/(m2⋅K). Thus, one-third of the stratospheric water vapor feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the TTL, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering the LMS through the extratropical tropopause. The part of the feedback due to TTL processes is on firm footing because the GEOSCCM’s simulation of increasing H2Oov-entry is in good agreement with MLS observations, and the GEOSCCM results are typical of other chemistry–climate models with a well-resolved TTL and stratosphere (27). The LMS portion of the feedback, on the other hand, should be considered more preliminary because of limitations in our understanding of LMS H2O. This stratospheric water vapor feedback may be an important component of our climate system (28). A +0.1 W/(m2⋅K) feedback would be responsible for ∼10% or ∼0.4 K of the temperature response of a climate with an equilibrium climate sensitivity of 4 °C per doubled carbon dioxide. Because of nonlinearities in climate sensitivity, however, this same feedback would be responsible for ∼5% or ∼0.1 K of the temperature response for a climate with a sensitivity of 2 °C. The larger but more speculative feedback estimate of +0.3 W/(m2⋅K) would lead to contributions at least a factor of 3 larger. Note that climate models uniformly project increases in stratospheric water vapor as the climate warms. For example, in a set of 16 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model simulations (29) of the 21st century driven by the RCP4.5 scenario, we found that the change in 70-hPa tropical H2O over the 21st century ranges from 0.2 to 1.0 ppm. Thus, the stratospheric water vapor feedback is already operating—to some extent, at least—in climate models. However, differences in ΔH2O among the models open the possibility of large differences among the models in this feedback. This might explain some of the spread in climate sensitivities among the models. Previous SectionNext Section Methods In the paper, we regressed the monthly MLS H2O anomaly time series against a set of regressors that were previously identified as influencing H2Oov-entry. The regressors are monthly anomalies, calculated relative to the MLS data period. The regression is a standard linear least-squares multivariate regression and the regressors are lagged to account for the finite time it takes for the change in the indices to impact TTL temperatures and then to be felt at 82 hPa. The QBO index is lagged by 3 mo and the BD index and ΔT are lagged by 1 mo. Although each of these lags is physically reasonable, the exact lag is set to maximize the explained variance. For the LMS regressions, the maximum explained variance occurs with no lag between the time series. The ENSO is an important driver of interannual variability in the climate system, but we omit it from Eq. 1because our tropical tropospheric temperature regressor captures most of that variability. Likewise, whereas there are physical mechanisms by which QBO and BD may be correlated (30), the correlation is not statistically significant over the MLS period, and even over a longer time period the two are only weakly correlated (31). Fig. 5 shows time series of the components of the MLS regression. There is a clear QBO signal in H2Oov-entry(32⇓–34). The strength of the BD circulation regulates upwelling in the TTL, which is inversely connected to TTL temperature anomalies (35). BD variations have previously been identified as an explanation for the drop in H2Oov-entry after 2000 (36, 37), and our analysis shows that a strengthening BD circulation contributed (along with the QBO) to a similar drop of H2Oov-entry during 2012. ΔT variations are responsible for H2Oov-entryvariations of a few tenths of a ppm. Such variations are consistent with both simple arguments (38) and climate models (39) that suggest a warming climate will warm the tropopause. The residual shows some physical structure, suggesting that other processes may play a part in regulating stratospheric water vapor.
  7. It is stratospheric water vapor, no doubt about it.
  8. Just stop with the solar stuff, that stuff has been thoroughly debunked. It's barely even 0.1 w/m2 minus forcing.
  9. You are on fire recently, I completely agree. Strong hysteresis parabola.
  10. I have been harping on this subject to locals. It's a very real danger, all coastal real estate values are in jeopardy.
  11. On facevalue, the movie should reduce support since the Geostorm is atagonistic in the film.
  12. Carbon dioxide levels lower than thought during super greenhouse period October 12, 2017 Concentration of carbon dioxide during an intense period of global warmth may have been as low as half the level previously suggested by scientists, according to a new Dartmouth College study. The study found that carbon dioxide may have been less than 1000 parts per million, or ppm, during the Earth's early Eocene period. This runs counter to thinking that concentration levels were as high as 2000 ppm in the same time frame. By comparison, current levels of carbon dioxide observed at NOAA's Mauna Loa Observatory are around 400 ppm. "This research provides important information about the planet's climate past and adds an important chapter to the Earth's history book," said Ying Cui, Obering Postdoctoral Fellow at Dartmouth College. Climate researchers focus on the early Eocene, a so-called "super greenhouse" period, to better understand how the Earth historically responds to changes in carbon dioxide levels, and to help make better climate projections. Both the Arctic and Antarctic were ice-free in this time period as temperatures averaged about 10 degrees Celsius warmer than present day. The early Eocene was also characterized by five periods of extreme warmth—known as hyperthermals—that occurred between 52-56 million years ago when the Earth warmed an additional 2 C - 8 C above the already higher temperatures. Although there were no cars or power plants 56 million years ago, the same carbon rich in the isotope carbon-12 was released into the atmosphere. Up until now, researchers have grappled with where that carbon came from, what triggered its release, and to what extent carbon dioxide accounted for warming relative to other greenhouse gases. Unable to access information on carbon dioxide from ice cores that only date back approximately 800,000 years, the research team used a new method to reconstruct levels of carbon dioxide associated with the temperature spikes within the early Eocene. The Dartmouth research result was derived by assessing past carbon dioxide concentrations using sediment samples found in terrestrial and deep-sea drilling sites. The ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-13 isotopes in those samples helped the team determine that the most likely source of the carbon came from thawing permafrost during the period studied. "This changes our understanding of what the concentration of carbon dioxide should be in relationship to global temperature as well as how we should revisit climate models in order to better project future climate change," Cui said. While the Dartmouth research, published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters, finds that the carbon was most likely released by permafrost thaw, there is still question as to what triggered the warming that caused the release of extra carbon into the atmosphere. Separate research points to the roles of extreme volcanic activity and water vapor during Earth's earlier warming periods. "The challenge is to reconstruct what the past carbon dioxide concentration is and to utilize these geochemistry proxies the best we can - essentially, how can we best interpret these records using geological archives," said Cui. Although focusing on a timeframe that is over 50 million years ago, Cui says the research relates directly to efforts to understand the Earth's current warming trend, and to project how human activities and other natural dynamics could impact future warming. "The geologic past can provide a useful insight into our understanding of current and future environmental change," said Cui. "Policy makers, economists and others who study projections on temperature can utilize this information to see how ecosystems recover after rapid change of climate and use it as lessons for the future." The research team hopes to use the new technique to broaden understanding of the role of carbon dioxide for a longer stretch of Earth's history. Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-10-carbon-dioxide-thought-super-greenhouse.html#jCp
  13. While I accept that my permanent el nino theory didn't quite verify this cycle 100%, we are nearing some threshold in the system that resembles permanent el nino. Occasionally the trade winds will upwell cold water to the surface independent of the anthropogenic ENSO cycle, due to changes elsewhere in the system which have yet to be determined.